Risk factors for hepatoma include cirrhosis, diabetes, BRCA 1 & 2 gene mutations, aflatoxin exposure, alcohol abuse, & smoking but worldwide, the most common cause of hepatoma is chronic hepatitis virus infection. Of 6 known types, hepatitis B (HBV) & C (HCV) viruses are the main culprits & they are usually acquired via contaminated blood or needles in the context of tranfusions, tattooing, or drug abuse. Further, HBV is endemic in Asia and may also be sexually-transmitted, infecting even fetuses in utero. Once malignant transformation has set in, only surgery can provide a possible cure. Sadly, this is possible only for a few, since the infected liver may not have enough reserves to sustain a complete tumor resection (matched organ donors are hard to find), the tumors may be too numerous, involve more than one lobe, or are already affecting blood supply. All other treatments– chemotherapy, experimental targeted therapy, chemo-embolization, tumor ablation by RFA (unless tiny), radioisotopes etc– are in the realm of palliation.
How to protect yourself from hepatoma? Well, common sense says that one should avoid the risk factors under our control, including most substances that can damage the liver– drugs, excessive alcohol, pesticides, toxins. Use only sterile needles with your meds, insist upon properly screened blood products when transfusions are prescribed, and think hard before tattooing/piercing. Know the virus status of a sexual partner (tough without screening). Most important of all: vaccines exist for HBV that provide almost total protection for years. Even infants can be immunized– and they should be.
The easiest kind of "cancer treatment" is always prevention.